Diabetes complications involve the disruption of a variety of bodily systems and complications may occur over many timescales - from the date of diagnosis to years after diabetes has developed.
The majority of diabetes complications occur due to fluctuations in blood glucose levels, particularly elevated blood sugar over a long period of time. Controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure has been proven to reduce the risk of diabetes complications.
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Complications and Poor Control
Type 1 diabetes rarely results in retinopathy and nephropathy within the first five years, but kidney damage and eye diseases have been found to be more common amongst those with poor control.
Risks of diabetes complications climb once HbA1c levels exceed 9%, and again increase significantly above 12%.
Type 2 diabetes may often result in vascular complications such as heart attacks, stroke and problems with circulation.
By closely controlling blood sugar levels, blood pressure and cholesterol, people with diabetes can help lower their risk of diabetes complications.
Moreover, a lifestyle involving a good diet, regular exercise and no smoking also help to reduce diabetes complication risks.
Diabetes complications is broken down by areas of the body and related organs and is complemented with guides to each of the major complications, screening and prevention.
COMPLICATIONS OF LONG STANDING DIABETES:
Diabetes should be managed early in its course. The earlier the better. Inadequately treated diabetes can cause in the long run, complications involving symptoms over the whole body, viz.
Brain and Nerves: Strokes and neuritis.
Kidneys: Chronic renal failure.
Eyes: Premature cataracts and diabetic retinal involvement.
Skin: Recurrent skin infections.
Pregnancy: It can have detrimental effects on the mother as well as the child.
ROUTINE TESTS REQUIRED FOR A DIABETIC:
- Urine Analysis.
- Kidney Function tests.
- Lipid profile.
- Eye check up.
- 2D Echo Cardiogram.
- Glycosylated Hemoglobin%
All these are to be done once a year apart from monthly blood sugar analysis.